Employers openly discriminated because they felt that older workers had age-related illnesses or lacked motivation to learn new things or to change. Byron has roughly nine years of corporate experience in instructional design, needs assessment, and evaluation. In the area of leisure and entertainment, a variety of learning needs were identified by the older adults in the Purdie and Boulton-Lewis study. Applying the science of learning to the university and beyond. Halpern and Hakel in their article, Applying the Science of Learning to the University and Beyond, discusses how although every college teacher has an in-depth study in their academic area, they have little if no formal training in adult learning, memory, or learning transfer. Byron Havard earned his B.